Primary Word |
Secondary Word |
Definition |
Tutorial Page Link |

Carnot | 1A1 | ||

Carnot | heat engine | 6E1 , 13 - 18 , 20 - 22 | |

Carnot | heat pump | 6E1 , 14 , 19 , 21 | |

Carnot | power cycle | 6E1 , 13 - 18 , 20 - 22 | |

Carnot | refrigeration | 6E1 , 14 , 19 , 21 | |

Carnot cycle | 6E1 , 3 - 22 | ||

Carnot cycle | closed system | 6E1 - 14 | |

Carnot cycle | First law analysis | 7B17 | |

Carnot cycle | gas power | 9E1 | |

Carnot cycle | open system | 6E15 - 16 | |

Carnot cycle | PV diagram | 7B14 | |

Carnot cycle | refrigeration | 10A2 - 5 | |

Carnot cycle | Second Law analysis of | 7B16 | |

Carnot cycle | TS diagram | 7B15 | |

Carnot cycle | vapor power cycle | 6E17 , 18 | |

Carnot efficiency | 6G1 | ||

Carnot Principle | First | 6E20 , 21 | |

Carnot Principle | Second | 6E20 - 22 | |

Carnot refrigeration cycle | gas | 10A2 - 5 | |

Carnot refrigeration cycle | vapor-compression | 10A2 - 5 | |

Carnot vapor power cycle | TS diagram | 9B1 | |

chemical stability | 10B5 | ||

Clapeyron equation | 3E10 , 11 | ||

Clausius inequality | 7A1 - 10 | ||

Clausius-Clapeyron equation | An equation that relates the vapor pressure of a given substance to the temperature and the heat of vaporization of the substance at the same temperature. Given the vapor pressure and the heat of vaporization at one temperature, the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation provides a way to estimate the vapor pressure at other, similar temperatures. This is accurate as long as the heat of vaporization remains essentially constant over the range of temperatures under consideration. | 3E11 | |

closed system | No mass crosses the boundary of a Closed System during a process. | 4C3 - 6 | |

coefficient of performance | heat pump | A measure of the performance of a heat pump system. The COP is the desired energy transfer rate divided by the required energy transfer rate. For a heat pump cycle, COP is the heat transfer rate into the hot reservoir divided by the rate at which work is supplied to the cycle. COP is generally greater than 1. | 6B8 |

coefficient of performance | refrigeration | A measure of the performance of a refrigeration system. The COP is the desired energy transfer rate divided by the required energy transfer rate. For a refrigeration cycle COP is the heat transfer rate from the cold reservoir divided by the rate at which work is supplied to the cycle. COP is generally greater than 1. | 4F9 |

coefficient of performance | A measure of the performance of a refrigeration or heat pump system. In each case, COP is the desired energy transfer rate divided by the required energy transfer rate. For a refrigeration cycle COP is the heat transfer rate from the cold reservoir divided by the rate at which work is supplied to the cycle. For a heat pump cycle COP is the heat transfer rate into the hot reservoir divided by the rate at which work is supplied to the cycle. COP is generally greater than 1. | 4F9 | |

cold air-standard assumption | 9E11 | ||

compound | Chemical species comprised of more than one element | 2A1 | |

compressed liquid | Also known as a subcooled liquid. A liquid that is at a temperature BELOW the saturation temperature (T < Tsat) that corresponds to the existing pressure. The addition of a small amount of energy will NOT cause the vapor to vaporize, its temperature will just increase. | 2B4 , 5 , 8 | |

compressed liquid | specific entropy | 7B10 | |

compressibility chart | Also known as the Generalized Compressibility Charts. A plot of the compressibility factor, Z, as a function of the reduced pressure, Pr. The three different compressibility charts cover the low, intermediate and high ranges of Pr. The charts include curves of constant reduced temperature, Tr and curves of constant ideal reduced molar volume, Vr | 2E10 | |

compressibility factor | Also known as the Generalized Compressibility Factor. The symbol for the Compressibility Factor is Z. It is equal to the ratio of the actual molar volume to the molar volume predicted by the Ideal Gas EOS. The defining equation is : Z = PV/nRT. Therefore, Z = 1 for ideal gas and the deviation of Z from 1 is a measure of the non-ideal behavior of a gas at a given t and P. | 2E7 | |

compression | 4A1 , 11 | ||

compression | adiabatic | 6E9 , 10 | |

compression | isothermal | 6E8 , 10 | |

compression | multi-stage with intercooling | 8C13 - 18 | |

compression | multi-stage with intercooling, ideal gas, constat heat capacities | 8C17 , 18 | |

compression | reversible | 6E2 | |

compressor | A device that uses an external source of work, such as a motor, to increase the pressure of a gas. | 5C6 , 9 | |

condensable | 2D3 , 4 , 5 | ||

condensation | A process in which molecules make the transition from the gas or vapor phase into the liquid phase. | 2B7 | |

condense | 2D1 | ||

condenser | 6B5 , 7 , 9 | ||

conduction | A heat transfer mechanism that occurs when more energetic atoms, molecules or electrons interact or collide with less energetic molecules. Conduction is the principle mode of heat transfer in solids and is also important for heat transfer in fluids. | 4B14 - 17 | |

conservation of energy principle | In the absence of nuclear reactions, energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy can only change form or be transferred. Also known as the First Law of Thermodynamics. | 1A3 | |

conservation of mass | In the absence of nuclear reactions, mass cannot be created or destroyed. | 5A1 | |

conservation of mass | closed system | 8B3 | |

conservation of mass | open system | 8B3 | |

conservation of mass | steady-state | 8B5 | |

constant pressure heat capacity | The amount energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass (or mole) of a substance by one degree at a constant pressure. The symbol for the constant pressure heat capacity is Cp and only the units can tell you whether the value refers to a molar basis or a mass basis. [ kJ / kg-K, J / mole-C, Btu / lbm-F, etc. ] | 3C2 , 6 - 8 | |

constant volume heat capacity | The amount energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass (or mole) of a substance by one degree while the volume of the system remains constant. The symbol for the constant pressure heat capacity is Cv and only the units can tell you whether the value refers to a molar basis or a mass basis. [ kJ / kg-K, J / mole-C, Btu / lbm-F, etc. ] | 3C2 , 5 - 8 | |

convection | A mode of heat transfer usually between a solid surface at one temperature and an adjacent moving fluid at another temperature. Convection heat transfer is the combination of conduction heat transfer with the effects of fluid motion at an interface. | 4B14 , 18 - 20 | |

convection | forced | Heat transfer in which the motion of the fluid phase is driven by a pressure difference within the fluid. This pressure difference is generally applied by a fan or pump of some sort. | 4B18 , 20 |

convection | free | Heat transfer in which the motion of the fluid phase is caused by buoyant forces. The buoyant forces are the result of unbalanced density differences in an external acceleration field, usually gravity. Also known as natural convection. | 4B18 , 20 |

convection | heat transfer coefficient | An empirical parameter defined in Newton's Law of Cooling. It is the proportionality constant between the convection heat flux and the difference in temperature between the bulk fluid and the solid surface. The value of the convection heat transfer coefficient depends on fluid properties, the fluid velocity profile near the interface and the geometry of the fluid-solid interface. The symbol for the convection heat transfer coefficient is "h". [W/(m^2*K)] | 4B19 , 20 |

convection | natural | Heat transfer in which the motion of the fluid phase is caused by buoyant forces. The buoyant forces are the result of unbalanced density differences in an external acceleration field, usually gravity. Also known as free convection. | 4B18 , 20 |

corresponding states | principle of | For all gases at the same reduced temperature and reduced pressure, many physical properties, including the compressibility factor, Z, are the same. | 2E7 |

corrosiveness | 10B5 | ||

critical molar volume | The molar volume at of a pure substance when it exists at the critical temperature and pressure of that substance. [ L/mol ] | 2B7 | |

critical point | State (T and P) at which the saturated liquid and saturated vapor states are identical. This means that the saturated vapor and liquid have all the same properties and, as a result, become indistinguishable. | 2B3 , 5 , 7 , 8 | |

critical pressure | The pressure at the critical point. This is the highest pressure at which a species can coexist in the vapor and liquid phases. [ atm, Pa, bar, Torr ] | 2E8 | |

critical temperature | The temperature at the critical point. The highest temperature at which a species can coexist in the liquid and vapor phases. [ K, C, R, F ] | 2B6 | |

cross-sectional area | 5A5 | ||

cryogenic temperatures | 10E1 | ||

cycle | A cycle, or thermodynamic cycle, is a series of processes in which the working fluid within the system is returned to its original state when the cycle has been completed. | 1D4 | |

cycle | Carnot | 6E1 , 3 - 22 | |

cycle | closed | 4F1 | |

cycle | gas | 4F1 | |

cycle | gas power | 9E1 - 13 | |

cycle | heat pump | A cycle in which work is done on a system in order to transfer energy, in the form of heat, into a high temperature reservoir from a cold reservoir. | 4F1 , 3 , 10 - 11 |

cycle | irreversible | 7A3 , 6 | |

cycle | open | 4F1 | |

cycle | power | A cycle in which energy, in the form of heat, is transferred from a hot reservoir into a system in order to do work on the surroundings. | 4F1 , 3 - 6 |

cycle | refrigeration | A cycle in which work is done on a system in order to remove energy, in the form of heat, from a cold reservoir and reject waste heat into a high temperature reservoir. | 4F1 , 3 , 7 - 9 |

cycle | reversible | 7A3 , 5 - 9 | |

cycle | thermodynamic definition | 4F1 | |

cycle | vapor | 4F1 | |

cycle | vapor power | 9B1 | |

cyclic integral | 7A2 , 7 - 8 |